“In the best interest of the child” or “child’s best interest” is the famous mantra of the family court, which is prevalent in child custody proceedings today, yet its interpretationthe family court or judges is often arbitrary and its meaning is still obscure. Moreover, the law regarding child custody varies from state to state leaving no uniform legal position regarding what is in the best interest of the child. Some states have a preference and presumption towards joint custody while others do not. Some states are amending its law to adopt a preference and presumption for joint custody while others are amending its law to allow joint custody only when the parents agree to it.

Like most states the standard for child custody determination in California is the overall best interest of the child such that it assures the “health, safety, and welfare” of the child and “frequent and continuing contact” with both parents. However, California does not establish a preference or a presumption for or against joint custody or custody to one parent and therefore leaves the parenting plan decision up to the discretion of the family court or a judge. In 1979, California adopted a presumption for joint custody, but later amended the law in 1994 to allow joint custody only when the parents agreed to it. According to the American Bar Association website, other states such as Connecticut, Maine, Michigan, Mississippi, Nevada, Vermont, and Washington also adopted laws in favor of joint custody, but only when the parents agreed to it. Other states such as the District of Columbia, Florida, Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, New Hampshire, New Mexico, and Texas, have laws favoring a presumption for joint custody. In a few other states, joint custody is not specifically authorized.

Regardless of each states position for or against a presumption or preference in favor of joint custody and whether or not it has been specifically authorized, overall there appears to be a growing trend in favor of joint custody and more and more bills being introduced to adopt a presumption for joint custody being in the best interest of the child unless certain circumstances apply, such as convincing evidence that a parent is unfit or it would not be in the best interest of the child to award joint custody.

If you are involved in a child custody dispute, whether it is the initial child custody determination or a child custody modification, you would be wise to consult a family law attorney in your jurisdiction to help you learn what the law and standard for custody determinations is in your area and how it applies to your specific situation. Further you will want to learn what factors the court will consider in determining the best interest of the child so you are fully aware of your child custody rights and responsibilities.